I'm starting to notice various "ten best of the decade" lists coming out, here is Tyler Cowen's contribution, and here is a compilation of "best of the 2010s" lists.
For most of these various categories, I don't feel qualified to offer an opinion; I don't keep up with popular music, I don't watch much TV or see many movies.
But I do still read a great deal of fantasy and SF, so here is my list of the top ten SF and fantasy novels of the 2010s:
Surface Detail, Iain M. Banks, 2010.
Somnium, Steve Moore, 2011.
The Yearbook, Carol Masciola. 2015.
Luna: New Moon, Ian McDonald, 2015.
The Fifth Season, N.K. Jemisin, 2015.
Seveneves, Neal Stephenson, 2015.
Too Like the Lightning, Ada Palmer, 2016.
The Corporation Wars trilogy (first book, 2016) , Ken MacLeod.
Kingdom of the Wicked, Helen Dale, 2017
Gnomon, Nick Harkaway, 2017.
Some honorable mentions:
Ancillary Justice, Ann Leckie, 2014.
All Systems Red, Martha Wells, 2017.
Stealing Worlds, Karl Schroeder, 2019.
The Powers of the Earth, Travis Corcoran, 2017.